India's First Aviation Themed Technical & Cultural Fest

Hosted by

School of Aeronautics (Neemrana)




Today's modern airplanes are powered by turbofan engines. These engines are quite reliable, providing years of troublefree service. However, because of the rarity of turbofan engine malfunctions, and the limitations of simulating those malfunctions, many flight crews have felt  unprepared to diagnose engine malfunctions that have occurred. The purpose of this text is to provide straightforward material to give flight
crews the basics of airplane engine operational theory. This text will also provide pertinent information about malfunctions that may be encountered during the operation of turbofanpowered airplanes, especially those malfunctions that cannot be simulated well and may thus cause confusion. While simulators have greatly improved pilot training, many may not have been programmed to simulate the actual noise,
vibration and aerodynamic forces that certain malfunctions cause. In addition, it appears that the greater the sensations, the greater the startle factor, along with greater likelihood the flight crew will try to diagnose the problem immediately instead of flying the airplane.


Flight instruments are the instruments in the cockpit of an aircraft that provide the pilot with information about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitudeairspeedvertical speed, heading and much more other crucial information. They improve safety by allowing the pilot to fly the aircraft in level flight, and make turns, without a reference outside the aircraft such as the horizon. Visual flight rules (VFR) require an airspeed indicator, an altimeter, and a compass or other suitable magnetic direction indicator. Instrument flight rules (IFR) additionally require a gyroscopic pitch-bank (artificial horizon), direction (directional gyro) and rate of turn indicator, plus a slip-skid indicator, adjustable altimeter, and a clock. Flight into Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) require radio navigation instruments for precise takeoffs and landings.


Most of the aircraft operating today are made with lightweight but strong aluminum, with most newer aircraft being made of advanced composites. Note the Cirrus SR-22 and Boeing Dreamliner 787 as examples of the newest modern aircraft developed at this time.

It has only been very recently that mainstream automobiles are starting to switch to lighter materials like aluminum.

There are several categories of aircraft:

  • Fixed-wing Airplane
  • Rotorcraft
  • Glider
  • Lighter-than-air vehicles

The aircraft is made up of an airframe, specifically fuselage, booms, nacelles, cowlings, fairings, airfoil surfaces, and landing gear. There are also accessories and controls that go with these structures. A notable fact is that the rotors of a helicopter serve the same purpose as the wings of a plane, so are considered part of the helicopter's airframe, unlike the propeller of an airframe.


Aerodynamics is the study of forces and the resulting motion of objects through the air.    

Studying the motion of air around an object allows us to measure the forces of lift, which allows an aircraft to overcome gravity, and drag, which is the resistance an aircraft “feels” as it moves through the air. Everything moving through the air (including airplanes, rockets, and birds) is affected by aerodynamics.

In this section, we will explore how lift and drag work at both subsonic speeds—slower than the speed of sound—and, later, at supersonic speeds—faster than the speed of sound.